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前言:
                                                                               
我要申請的不是什麼名校,只是要考獸醫同等學力認證,其中英文要求
                                                                               
iBT口說與聽力要26,寫作17,如果是考ILETS,總分要7,
                                                                               
並不是大家猜的眾多強者學院啦!
                                                                               
其實考八次滿丟臉的,代表我沒有準備好就去考,回顧這後面五次的分數,聽力都有
                                                                               
26以上但是口說一直在23,24徘徊,一直考到5/9我非常確定可以過,但分數出來後是24,
                                                                               
我接著申請複查,才得到28這個分數。
                                                                               
現在我手邊沒有OG(借人),大部分的內容是從筆記上出來的,如果有錯請大家指正。


口說評分
                                                                               
我並沒有找到真的評分者詢問,只是照著整理出的方向走,
                                                                               
可以分成六項來看:
                                                                               
Lexical Resourse/Pronunciation/Grammatical accuracy/Cohesion+Coherence/Fluency
                                                                               
                                                                               
看到這裡大家可能會開始想:死定了,每一項都不可能達到good,這樣一定扣光光。
                                                                               
不過根據我的經驗...orz......(鞭屍阿........)
                                                                               
其實有些項目是有著決定性的錯誤,有些卻是可以容忍的,甚至native speaker自己都會
                                                                               
犯同樣的錯,這也造成一種大家常常很疑惑的現象,就是:常聽到同樣都是抱怨沒有講完
                                                                               
或是作答吱吱嗚嗚的人,為何一個拿23一個拿19,標準在哪裡??
                                                                               
依重要性排列可以重組成下列的順序:    
Grammatical accuracy>Cohesion+Coherence>=Lexical Resourse>Fluency>Pronunciation
                                                                               
就從Pronunciaiton開始講回去好了。


Pronunciaiton:
                                                                               
大家第一印象往往是有口音怎麼辦?但是這對我們其實不是問題,
                                                                               
我們台灣人的口音對於美國人是可以理解的,只是我們往往太緊張會口吃或是本身文法
                                                                               
有錯,我問過美國與加拿大人,她們的反應是如果r的發音發不出來的話,她們會比較
                                                                               
難理解,試想印度人都可以跟美國人溝通了,而且ETS本身的sample也有很多口音很重
                                                                               
的回答,不過她們的文法是正確的,因此也可以被當成範例。



Fluency:
                                                                               
如果一整個回答都在hum..或是口吃,那一定聽不清楚你在講什麼,但如果只是卡到一個
                                                                               
句子有所停頓,或是句子跟句子之間有卡住,不過你還是有回答到要點,還是會有基本
                                                                               
分的,只是因為你停頓替自己浪費時間,導致你的回答不夠豐富,那麼你的分數也自然
                                                                               
停在某個上限,不過基本分還是有的。


接下來談的就是有著決定分數的重要性,

Lexical Resource:
                                                                               
就是你可以使用的字彙量,越豐富越好,而這是需要時間與努力累積的,舉例說明
                                                                               
怎樣是較為豐富的字彙量:
                                                                               
Displacement is a theory about how people transfer their negative emotion
                                                                               
from thenselves to other things.


也可以用
                                                                               
Displacement refers to a method people pass their negative emotion to other
                                                                               
objects.


基本上就是用一般美國人在講正事時常用的辭彙,在Time雜誌上可看到的,有很多代換詞
                                                                               
可以用。美國人不會每一次都是直述句this is.......或是一直用get get get,
                                                                               
重點是今天是要回答比較專業的題目,除了第一題之外,大部分是評論性的題目,
                                                                               
不太可能像聊天講烤肉講男女朋友那樣用很簡單的字回答,另外get是個到處都可以用的
                                                                               
詞,可是不夠精準,因此大家還是要試著用正確的動詞。豐富的字彙也可以讓你的口說
                                                                               
更生動,另外舉一個例如下:


My favorite tranditional food is beef noodle. It is made from beef, noodle and
                                                                               
some vegetable.
                                                                               
也可以用
                                                                               
My favorite tranditional food is beef noodle. We use thin, sliced beef, hand
                                                                               
made noodle and fresh vegetable to cook this delicacy.
                                                                               
                                                                               
這樣聽起來更好吃,如果是用在familiar topic還可衝秒數,在學習這些字彙的時候,
                                                                               
也可以提升你自己的組織能力,將在Part 2討論。


Cohesion + Coherence:
                                                                               
就是你的一致性與統整性,例如講家鄉美食,你已經鎖定牛肉麵就不用再講到肉粽,
                                                                               
只有15秒準備,45秒作答,做人不用太貪心,或是講聽力裡面的理論,迸出一個
                                                                               
是相關可是listening沒提到的例子,這樣分數就會很不好看,再者當描述學生遇到的
                                                                               
問題的時候,不需要提到會話中其他無關緊要的枝節。
                                                                               
總之就是一語中的,一擊必殺。
                                                                               
                                                                               
Grammatical accuracy:
                                                                               
這超重要的啦! 如果連基本的文法都錯了,那如何在外國溝通? 如果你文法夠強,加上字
                                                                               
彙也不錯,你就有能力在短短的準備時間內將句子用另一種句型與同樣意思的單字表達
                                                                               
出來。我不是文法老師,在這裡就不討論了。


那回到一開始大家的疑惑,那同樣的支吾其詞為何分數不一樣? 這跟個人的偏差(bias)
                                                                               
有關,真的兩個人都是一樣地支吾其詞嗎? 其實甲可能只是在結尾或是中間幾句有點
                                                                               
停頓,但是對於甲的臨場信心已經造成打擊,所以他覺得這題我說爆了,乙可能就真的是
                                                                               
從頭口吃到尾,但是還是有講到答案,不過兩者相較還是甲講得比較好。
                                                                               
因此最好的方法是把自己的回答錄下來,找出問題點,雖然一開始打擊會很大,不過這是
                                                                               
很好的方法,下一篇會分享我怎麼準備聽力跟口說,還有我犯過的錯,
                                                                               
希望大家不要多花冤枉錢。
                                                                               
                                                                               
有疑問歡迎提出,我可以在下一篇回答,謝謝!


前一篇是講評分標準,這一篇主要是回顧我準備過程中所犯的錯誤以及常遇到的問題,
                                                                               
配合前一篇的評分標準,我如何針對問題準備將寫在後面,第三篇分享我用的資源、討論
                                                                               
大家的問題、補充聽力如何準備以及我的一些想法。
                                                                               
先介紹我的背景:
                                                                               
我高中時英文老師同時也是班導,將大家的英文底子打得很好,
                                                                               
國中加高中聽了六年的空中英語教室(學校安排的),大學在台灣念,斷斷續續唸英文
                                                                               
,大四升大五與大五畢業後各出國實習一個半月與三個月,
                                                                               
大學畢業前並沒有在外國住過,也沒有美國身分。


先把我之前的分數拉出來看:
                                                                               
          Reading  Listening  Speaking  Writing  Total
                                                                               
July 6,      29        27        20        25     101
                                                                               
                                                                               
2007
                                                                               
口說那時候只有20分,我那時候對於練習口說有很大的抗拒,因為一開始打擊很大,
                                                                               
錯誤一:不練習!!
                                                                               
如果已經準備要考托福的人,還像我以前一樣沒有天天練習一定的時間,臨場考試時,
                                                                               
能夠發揮的實力會大打折扣,應變能力也不好,練習也要用對的方法練習:
                                                                               
1.你可以用錄音機錄下回答,自己修正。
                                                                               
2.可以找人一對一或是團體練習,請他人幫你指出錯誤。
                                                                               
後文會提到練習時應該怎樣修正。


從2008一月起我開始在美國旁聽課程,一邊準備同等學力測驗與執照考,雖然每天
                                                                               
有很規律地跟獸醫學生上四小時的課,回公寓還是都必須跟大陸人還有台灣同學講中文,
                                                                               
她們很少願意跟我講英文,一直盧到四月中有人要考AT,有人要考ILETS,大家才開始
                                                                               
慢慢改講英文。
                                                                               
                                                                               
          Reading  Listening  Speaking  Writing  Total
                                                                               
March 1,     27       26         24        24     101
                                                                               
2008
                                                                               
                                                                               
沒有進步,真是慘不忍睹,主要是那時還沒有找出自己的問題在哪,只是一昧地想著要讓
                                                                               
內容更豐富,一方面是體力的問題,當天剛好生理期,不敢喝咖啡,結果很想睡,

所以考試都昏昏的。

錯誤二:沒有找出問題並修正之!
                                                                               
如果沒抓到自己問題出在哪,那正式考試時還是很容易重蹈覆轍。
                                                                               
回家之後,我整理出我的問題是:
                                                                               
1.沒有很好的組織能力,不能夠在短時間內將想要的意思表達出來→Cohesion+Coherence
                                                                               
2.可以用的字彙不多,整篇回答不夠生動甚至辭不達意→Lexical resource
                                                                               
3.容易口吃,因為我是個容易緊張的人→Fluency

錯誤三:沒有維持好體力
                                                                               
我是從國中開始就有上課睡覺的紀錄,我從二月起已經開始慢跑(淚)。
                                                                               
                                                                               
接下來就是我如何針對弱項準備:
                                                                               
                                                                               
1. 到5/9考試之前,我每天練習口說至少五題Familiar topic,還有讀一篇
                                                                               
Scientific American的science talk,這是每週一次的talk,在release的兩週後會將
                                                                               
                                                                               
談話內容放上來,會選擇Scientific American的原因有:
                                                                               
(1)知道美國人的回答方式。Scientific American對談的內容所使用的語句是比較正式
                                                                               
   的,不那麼口語化的,可以知道當美國人在討論事情時,她們傾向第一句就是重點,
                                                                               
   之後用實例去佐證,這也是托福口說/寫作希望我們表現的,因為我們是要到美國求學
                                                                               
   ,入境隨俗摟!

(2)增加新的生字、片語還有熟悉/新增文法,只要你不常用到的都可以算是新的,
                                                                               
   要乖乖查單字。例如:In terms of, speaking of, based on等我們一定學過,
                                                                               
   但第一時間不一定會想到的詞,只是我們不習慣而已,我剛開始練習時,都會用
                                                                               
   it is....there is/are..非常地直敘,但美國人其實很習慣利用代名詞去替換,
                                                                               
   習慣使用which/who/that這些詞是非常有用的,再說我們中文也是會這個來那個去。
                                                                               
   例句:This is a gentleman, who is anonymous now and will not be named.
                                                                               
                                                                               
   在緊張的情況下,我們就會拆成:
                                                                               
   This is a gentleman. He has no name and he will not be named.
                                                                               
   沒使用到anonymous,也不習慣who的用法,這樣回答就很可惜。


(3)提升組織力。練習有一個好處是可以訓練你在短時間內組織文句的能力,
                                                                               
  我個人比較不喜歡用模版,我也試著寫過模板,但是反而讓我在練習時礙手礙腳的,
                                                                               
  建議大家可以在練習的時候,整理出一套自己常用的語句以及片語,習慣了就怎樣的
                                                                               
  情況都可以用上。
                                                                               
                                                                               
2. 租美國電影來看,只看英文字幕。
                                                                               
   可以練習口音,同時看到不會的單字也可以查,學會的就是自己的,不過要記得租
                                                                               
   現代片,不然對白可能沒學到太多東西。當你講話的腔調夠像美國人的時候,你的
                                                                               
   信心就會增加,自然緊張犯錯的機會就少了。
                                                                               
                                                                               
3. 大量閱讀文章,增加對英文的熟悉度。
                                                                               
   記住單字一定要查,一個單字要看過20遍才會記起來,記起來就是你的。網路上有
                                                                               
   很多免費資源,我第三篇會整理出來。


4. 查過的單字/片語,如果覺得用法不太一樣,要再去查,這樣你才算是真正懂得怎麼
                                                                               
   用這個字。
                                                                               
   set up 就有 安排v./陷害v./騙局n.這些意思
                                                                               
   blow off是放鴿子的的意思,let donw/up/to/in/out 有不同意思。
                                                                               
   這些都要努力過才是你的。
                                                                               
之後就考5/9的toefl,分數如下:
                                                                               
                                                                               
Reading  Listening  Speaking  Writing   總分
                                                                               
  28        28         24       27      107
                                                                               
                                                                               
當時我還滿沮喪的,因為覺得努力那麼久了,怎麼還是這樣,我媽就鼓勵我,她說反正

分數都沒到了,就去複查,既然你對你的回答很有信心,也許就過了。
                                                                               
當時我好像是6/10號收到toefl的收據確認我有傳真,當我6/19看到網頁時,
                                                                               
口說從24升到28,我就知道我的夢靨結束了。所以說,複查也是個好辦法!
                                                                               
因為反正分數都不到學校的要求,也不用去再乎那可能被扣的一兩分,也許你是賺到!
                                                                               
                                                                               
第三篇將在不久的將來推出唷! 謝謝大家!
                                                                               
同樣地也請大家有問題可以推文,第一篇的問題我看到了,我將一併在第三篇討論。
                                                                               
再一次謝謝!

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  • Norman Guan
  • Thanks for sharing your test prep experience. I'm sure your speaking English is great now. Just wanting to contribute a tip regarding how to improve your speaking English at the level you are now.

    Try take some writing classes as well as study the grammar again. You'll find it very useful later in life. You will also sound even more coherent.

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